Mahmud Ghaznavi (977 – 1030)
Mahmud ghaznavi was the muslim ruler of ghazni who gained fame by raiding india on seventeem times from 1000 to 1027 A.D. On each occasion he defeated hindu kings and returned to Ghazni with enormous wealth.He is the person who bring Islam in sub-continent by capturing the Sommnath.
Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi (RA)
Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi was a muslim saint and scholar who flourished during the reigns of Akbar and Jahangir. He differed with etheistic view of Sheikh Mubarak and his sons Faizi and Abul Fazl.Jahangir imprisoned him for his religious activities but released him shortly afterwards. Sheikh ahmed Sirhindi propounded the doctrine of Wahdatul Shahud which successfully countered the Bhakti philosophy of Wahdatul Wujud.
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26)
Ibrahim Lodhi was the last lodhi sultan of Delhi. He was defeated by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.
After defeating the Ibrahim lodhi ,The mughal empire had been came in existence by Zahir-ul-din Babur
1. Zahir-ul-din Babur
6. Orangzeb alamgir
7. Bhadur Shah Zafar
Downfall of muslim rule (CAUSES)
1.Ignorance of religious beliefs
2. Lack of solidarity
3. Centralization of mughul Administration
4. No law of succession
5. Weakness of Character
7. Military weakness
8. No naval Force
Establishment of British rule
The british east India company was struggling for gaining ground to establish itself permanently on the subcontinent since 1600 A.D. The other European colonialist powers had lost their will to keep themselves in row with the English because of their superiority on seas. Lord Clive established English influence on sound footing and returned to england in 1787
When no rival European power was left on the scene , the English took advantage of the unsettled conditions of India and consolidated themselves politically.They clevely played one local ruler against the other and conquered India with the might of india.They demonstrated a great diplomati skill and employed improved arms with a better knowledge of warfare. The indian rulers at last fell a victim to their own entanglement. They were either forced to accept the authority of East India Company or to be completely wiped off.This process of expansion of the british occupation od India continued in one form orthe other.Kingdom after kingdom fell and then English finally pushed themselves ahead to succeed the mughuls.
Jehad Movement was started by Syed Ahmed Barelvi and his companions in the first half of the 19th century.This movement aimed at taking back control of India from the british and the Sikhs. Jehad movement met some sucess in its early stage when the Mujahideen defeated Sikh army and captured Peshawar.
Two Nation Theory
It is the theory that the hindus and muslims are two different nations because each of them has a separate religion, language, architecture, culture and way of life. This theory formed the basis of the pakistan movement which finally led to the creation of pakistan in 1947. Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam were the greatest exponents of Two-NationTheory.
In the view of Allama Iqbal:
“India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races , speaking different languages and professing different religions….Even the Hindus do not form a homogeneous group. The principle of European democracy can not b applied to india without recognizing the fact of communal groups The muslims demand for the creation of a muslim india within India is, therefore, perfectly justified”
According to Quaid-e-Azam
“We maintain and hold that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation.We are a nation of a hundred million and what is more we are a nation with our own distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names nad nomenclature, sense of values and proportion”
Hindi-Urdu Controversy (1867)
Hindi- Urdu Controversy became the focus of nation attention in 1867 when some hindus of benarus tried to replace urdu with hindi as the court language. Sir syed ahmed was disappointed at the anti-Muslim attitude of Hindus.
War of Independence (1857)
The muslim of the Sub-continent fought a war of Independence in 1857 to overthrow the British Raj.However, this war could not succeed because it lacked competent leadership, coordination troops , military and financial resources and modern weapons. After the war, the British held the muslim responsible for this catastrophe and unleashed a wave of oppression and repression on them
M.A.O college Aligarh
In 1875, Muhammad Anglo-Oriental High school was founded by Sir syed ahmed khan. Two years later, in 1877 it was given the status of a college. It functioned from 1877 to 1919 and educated thousands of muslim students who formed the vanguard of pakistan movement.This college was given the status of a muslim university in 1920,after the death of Sir syed ahmed khan.
Deoband movement was a socio-religious movement of Indian in the later half of the 19th century. It was started by Maulana Mohd Qasim Nanautvi in 1866. It aimed at educating the muslims in purely religious subjects by keeping english out of its syllabus. It laid stress on Arabic and Persion languages.
In 1894, Nadva-tu-Ulema, lucknow was founded by Maulana Abdul Ghafoor and Maulana Shibli Nomani. Nadva aimed at reforming Muslim society by imparting both ecclesiastical and secular knowledge to muslims
Anjuman Himayat-e-Islam, Lahore
Anjuman himayat-e-Islam ,lahore was established in 1884. Khalifa hameeduddin and Maulvi Ghulam Ullah were elected as its first president and secretary respectively.Later on, the Anjuman opened many educational and welfare institutionsion Lahore. Out of these Islamia college Railway road became very famous. The students of Islamia college arranged the annual meeting of muslim league at Lahore on 23rd march 1940 which passed lahore resolution.
First Constituent Assembly
First constituent assembly held its first meeting on 10th august,1947.Originally it comprised of 69 members of Central legislature belonging to punjab,sindh,NWFP and Baluchistan.Later on,the numer of members was raised to 79.This first constituent assemble was dissolved by ghulam mohammad in oct,1954.
The Contituent Assembly approved the objective resolution on 12th mar,1949.It embodied the basic principles for the future contituent of pakistan.The objective resolution stated that the sovereignty belonged to Allah and declared that the Muslims of pakistan would lead their lives according to the principles of Islam and The minorities would b free to practise their religions.
Ulema`s 22 Points
The Govt of pakistan convened a convention of Ulema from 21-24th jan 1951 at karachi.The convention was attended by 31 muslim religious scholars belonging to all sects od Islam.The Ulema agreed on 22 points
Establishment of pakistan (Initial problems and events)
1. Demarcation of boundaries …..Radcliffe`s Award
2. Congress Reaction
3. Uprooting of muslim in punjab
4. Refugees problem and their resettlement
5. Division of Armed forces and Military Assets
6. Division of financial Assets
7. Canal Water Dispute
8. Accession of Princely states (junagarh,kashmir and hyderabad)
9. economic problems and political problems
10. Constitutional problem
11. Death of Quaid-e-Azam
Indus water Treaty
Indus water treaty was signed by india and pakistan in 1960to resolve the outstanding canal water dispute between the two countries
Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch is a wide stretch of marshy land situated towards the south-east of pakistan. In 1965 this area became a scene of border clash betweem india and pak.
Six Points of Mujib-ur-rehman
In Feb. 1966, Sheikh Mujib the leader of Awami league announced his 6 points, which demanded maximum autonomy for East pakistan.Later on, these points became the basis for the separation movement by Bengalis.
Liaquat – Nehru Pact
Liaquat Ali khan and Nehru signed a pact on 8th april 1950 in delhi.According to this agreement, both the countries agreed to protect the rights of their minorities and undertook to stop propaganda against each other.
The 1971 Indo-pak was abd the insurgency of bengalis resulted in the separation of east pakistan. The way brought in its wake many issue, which included the release of PoWs, trial of selected PoWs, return of Baharis to pakistan and recognition of bangladesh . In july 1972, Z.A.Bhutto and Indira Gandhi signed an Accord in simla which is historically known as simla accord
Languages of pakistan
Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. About thirty-one distinct languages are spoken in pakistan, not counting a number of dialects, but no single language is commonly spoken or understood in all parts of the country.Many of the languages are spoken by a relatively small proportion of the population and some are not even commonly written, but sentiment and association among the speakers is almost invariably opposed to absorption into one of the larger units. With minor exception all the languages are also spoken outside the country
Ratio of languages of pakistan
1. Urdu ( 7.6 )
2. Punjabi ( 44.1 )
3. Pushto ( 15.4 )
4. Sindhi ( 14.1 )
5. Balochi ( 3.6 )
6. Saraiki ( 10.5 )
7. Others ( 4.7 )
POPULATION OF PAKISTAN BY RELIGION
According to census of 1981 , religion-wise population of pakistan was as under
1. Muslim = 81,450,057
2. Christians = 1,310,426
3. Hindus = 1,276,116
4. Ahmadis = 104,244
5. Bhuddist = 2639
6. Parsis = 7007
7. Others = 103,155
Economics of Pakistan (Five Year Plans)
So far the government of pakistan has launched the following nine five year plans. ( 1975 to 1978 ) is regarded as no plan period
1. First five year plan (1955-60)
2. Second five year plan (1960-65)
3. Third five year plan (1965-70)
4. Fourth five year plan (1970-75)
5. Fifth five year plan (1978-83)
6. Sixth five year plan (1983-88)
7. Seventh five year plan (1988-93)
8. Eighth five year plan (1993-98)
9. Ninth five year plan (1998-2003)
Important Rivers Of Pakistan
PUNJAB : Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , Sutlej
SINDH : Hub , Mir Nadi , Arl Nadi
NWFP : Indus , Kabul , Swat , Bara , Chitral , Zhob , Panjkora , Gomal , Kurram
BALUCHISTAN : Hangol , Nari , Bolan , Dasht , Mula , Rakhshan , Pashin Lora