Total Marks: 100
1. The Universe:-
The solar system and the Earth. Earth’s Origin, shape and size, rotation and revolution, distribution of land and water. Geological time scale.
Composition and internal structure of the Earth, Rocks-origin, formation and types ( igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic), plate tectonics, mountain building geomorphic processes internal and external, earthquakes, volcanic activity, weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition, cycle of erosion; landforms produced by surface water, ground water, wind and glaciers.
3. Elements of weather and climate:-
Insolation, global radiation and heat balance, atmospheric temperature, compositon and structure of atmosphere, atomosheric pressure and winds air masses and fronts (classification, distribution and associated weather), cyclones, tornadoes, thunderstorms and weather disturbances. Hydrological cycle. Atmospheric moisture and precipitation. Climatic classification: Koppen’s classification with special reference to the following types: Af, Am, Bsh, Csa and Dfc. Atmospheric pollution global warming.
Configuration of ocean floor, ocean deposits. Composition, temperature and salinity of ocean water, movements of the ocean water, waves, currents and tides.
Origin and evolution of life on Earth (with reference to Geological time scale). Formation and types of soils. Eco-Systems and world major Biomes.
6. Study of Maps
Topographical Maps, Aerial Photographs and introduction to Remote Sensing, Weather maps of Pakistan. Map projection general principles, classification of network by simple graphic methods of the following projections. Cylindrical, Simple, Equal Area and MerCator’s (with table) Conical with one and two standard parallel’s and Bonne’s projections.Zenithal, Gnomonic Stereographic and orthographic (Polar Cases).
7. Scales: types and their use:-
8. Methods of representation of relief:-
Drawing of composite contour maps with the help of given data and information preparation of distribution maps with the help of symbols line-bar-shade dot and circle. Simple quantitative techniques and their use in geography. Study of frequency
distribution average’s (mean median and mode), Mean deviation, standard deviation and correlation. Index numbers and time series.
HUMAN, ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
Total Marks: 100
Man and his habitat: Concepts of Environmentalism and Possibilism, population growth, dynamics, (fertility, mortality, & migration), world society and culture, races, languages and religions, natural resources. World population, distribution, density and growth. Population structure, population change (Natural increase & migration) Migration factors (pull and push) types of migration Settlements: types of settlement, urbanization, rural urban characteristics urban hierarchy, Urban function and problems of urban places the Central Place theory.
1. Rowntree, L. et. Al(2004) “Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World” New York; Prentice Hall.
2. Neuwirth, R. (2004) “Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World”, London Routledge.
3. Harper, H.L. (2003) “Environment and Society: Human Perspectives on Environmental Issues” (3rd Edition) New York; Prentice Hall.
4. Knox, P.L. & S.A. Marston (2003) “Places and Regions in Global Context: Human Geography” (3rd Edition) New York; Prentice Hall.
5. Becker, A.& Secker (2002) “ Human Geography: Culture, Society and Space” (7th Edition) New York; John Wiley and Sons.
6. DeBlij, H.J. (2002) “ Human Geography: Culture, Society, and Space” (7th Edition) New York; John Wiley and Sons.
7. Lewis, C.P. Mitchell-Fox & C. Dyer (2001) “ Village, Hamlet and Field: Changing Medieval Settlements in Central England” London; Windgather Press.
8. Hagget, P. (1997) “Geography: A Modern Synthesis” London. Harper International.
Introduction: Definition, scope, approaches to study and relationship with other disciplines.
Economic activities: Classification and general distribution.
Production and consumption: producer and consumer, decision making, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary.
Historical Evolution of World Economics Systems: Medieval feudal economics, industrial revolution, economic benefits from colonialism. Modern world system.
Various types of agriculture and their distribution, subsistence, primitive, gathering, hunting, herding, cultivation, intensive farming, gathering commercial grain farming, fishing, dairying, mixed farming and plantation farming.
Agriculture conditions of agriculture, the physical constraints on agriculture.
Land factor in agriculture, world agricultural system, problems and policies in agriculture.
The role of selected commodities e.g., wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, etc.
Forest resources: world distribution, environmental and economic.
Mineral resources, distribution of important minerals, metalliferous minerals, the non-metalliferous minerals, economic factors in mining.
Power resources, form of power, solid fuels, oil & natural gas, non-exhaustible sources of energy.
Manufacturing: light and heavy industries, locational factors and locational theories, locational analysis of selected industries, iron and steel, textile (cotton, jute, woolen, synthetic) petro-chemical, world industrial regions.
Trade and service function, tertiary activities, distribution of services service industries.
Transport and trade: significance and characteristics of transport system, network, modes of transport, specialization and international trade.
Multilateral and bilateral trade, free trade areas and common markets, balance of trade, factors of trade, world pattern of trade.
Scope, Status and the significance of the regional approach and concept in Geography SAARC Countries with special reference to Pakistan, Environmental setting: physical and climatic. Natural and cultural resources: Vegetation and agriculture, population, hydrology and irrigation, mineral and power resumes, industries (major industries e.g. Iron & Steel textile, cement, chemical, sugar) trade and communication.