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CSS Syllabus Comparative Study of Major Religions


Revised Syllabus for CSS Competitive Examination-2016
(Alternative Paper in Lieu of the Compulsory Islamic Studies)
I. Introduction
Definition(s) of religion
Emergence of the study of religion as a discipline
Theological and academic study of religion
An overview of religious landscape of the World
II. Hinduism
Historical Background
Indus valley civilization, Aryan invasion theory, Vedic Dharma, Brahmanism
Sruti: Vedas, Upanishads, Smirti: Manu Smirti, Sutras, Puranas, Great epics: Ramayana,Mahabharata
Hindu Doctrines:
Dharma, Vedanta, Karma, Transmigration of Souls, Moksha (Liberation)
Ways to Liberation:
Karma marga (Works/Rituals), Jnana marga (Wisdom), Bhakti marga (Devotion)
Hindu gods:
Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Trimurti, other gods and divinities
Major Hindu Sects:
Vaishavism (Manifestation avatars), Saivism (Supreme God & Phallic worship), Saktism
(Goddess worship)
Hindu society:
Caste System, Ashramas (Stages of life)
Hinduism in the Modern World 19th century reform and revival movements, Contemporary Hindu Tendencies and movements
III. Buddhism

Historical Background
Life of Gautama Buddha, Formation and spread of Buddhism, Rivalry between Brahmanism and&Buddhism
Tripitaka: Sutta Pitaka, Vinaya Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka
Teachings and Doctrines
Three Jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, The four noble truths, Eight fold Path
Buddhist Sects:
Theravadas (Hinayana), Mahayana, other schools and sect Buddhism in the Modern world 19
IV. Judaism
A brief history of Jews and Judaism:
From Abraham to Moses, peace be upon them all, From Moses to establishment of Jewish
rule, Destruction of Jerusalem and dispersion of Jews in the world,
Jewish Scriptures:
Tanakh (The Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings), Mishnah and Talmud
Articles of faith and basic teachings:
Ten Commandments, The thirteen principles of faith propounded by Moses Maimonides (1138-1204)
Jewish holidays and festivals:
Yom Kippur (The Day of Atonement), Pesach (Passover), Sukkot (Tabernacles) Purim
Jewish Worship:
Daily prayer, fasting, Sabbath
Jewish sects and movements
Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism, Zionism, Kabbalah, Hasidism
V. Christianity
Historical background:
Jewish background of Christianity, Life and of Jesus Christ (Through the Four Gospels), Life
and the role of Paul (Through the Letters of Paul), Formation and spread of the Christian
Church, Christianization of the Roman Empire, Reform movement
The Holy Bible (Old Testament and New Testament)
Basic Doctrines:
Original Sin, Incarnation of God, Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ, Atonement,Trinity
Christian Sects:
Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Protestantism
Sub-denominations: Lutherans, Reformed and Presbyterians, Anglicans, Baptists,Methodists, Unitarians
Christian Festivals and Holidays:
Advent, Christmas, Easter, Pentecost
Christian worship and Sacraments
Baptism, Eucharist, Communion, Lord’s Supper, prayer, fasting, psalms, music,
Christianity in the Modern Times
Encounter with modernity, modern theological trends, Missionary movement, Dialogue and
relationship with other religions
VI. Islam
Introduction and Historical Background
Islamic concept of religion, universality of religion and diversity of shari‘ahs, Sirah (Life) of
the Holy Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, The era of rightly guided caliphs of Islam

Sacred Scriptures:
The Holy Quran, Hadith
Basic Doctrines and Creed:
Tawhid (Oneness of God), Risalah (Belief in Prophets and finality of the prophet-hood with the Prophet Muhammad), Akhirah (Belief in Hereafter and the final reckoning by Allah the Almighty), Belief in angels, previous scriptures, predestination and human responsibility before God, infallibility of the Quran
Five Pillars of Islam:
Utterance of Shahadatayn (To proclaim the Oneness of Allah and that Prophet Muhammad is his messenger, salah (five daily prayers), zakah (compulsory charity), sawm (fasting in the
month of Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah who can afford travelling to it)
Other Teachings of Islam
Equality of mankind, simplicity, spiritual purity and bodily hygiene, patience, contentment,
moderation, social justice, Jihad, tolerance towards other religions,
Sects and Schools
Sunnis (mainstream Muslims), Shi‘ahs (Special devotion for Hazrat Ali and Family of the
Prophet), Khawarij (literalists), Mu‘tazilah (rationalists)
Contemporary Islamic movements and tendencies:
Ikwan al Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood), Jama‘at-i-Islami, Tablighi Jama‘at, Salafi movement, Fethullah Gulen movement in Turkey, Iranian revolution, extremist groups.

CSS Examination New Revised Compulsory Optional Subjects Groups Marks



Code No. Subjects Marks

1. English Essay 100

2. English (Precis and Composition) 100

3. General Science & Ability 100

4. Current Affairs 100

5. Pakistan Affairs 100

6. Islamic Studies OR Comparative Study of Major Religions (For Non Muslims) 100

Total 600


Group-I: (To select one subject of (200 marks) only)
Code No. Subject Marks
11. Accountancy & Auditing 200
12. Economics 200
13. Computer Science 200
14. Political Science 200
15. International Relations 200

Group-II: (To select subject(s) of 200 marks only)
Code No. Subject Marks
16. Physics 200
17. Chemistry 200
18. Applied Mathematics 100
19. Pure Mathematics 100
20. Statistics 100
21. Geology 100

Group-III: (To select one subject of 100 marks only)
Code No. Subject Marks
22. Business Administration 100
23. Public Administration 100
24. Governance & Public Policies 100
25. Town Planning & Urban Management 100

Group-IV: (To select one subject of 100 marks only)
Code No. Subject Marks
26. History of Pakistan & India 100
27. Islamic History & Culture 100
28. British History 100
29. European History 100
30. History of USA 100

Group-V: (To select one subject of 100 marks only)
Code No. Subject Marks
31. Gender Studies 100
32. Environmental Sciences 100
33. Agriculture & Forestry 100
34. Botany 100
35. Zoology 100
36. English Literature 100
37. Urdu Literature 100

Group-VI: (To select one subject of 100 marks only)
Code No. Subject Marks
38. Law 100
39. Constitutional Law 100
40. International Law 100
41. Muslim Law & Jurisprudence 100
42. Mercantile Law 100
43. Criminology 100
44. Philosophy 100

Group-VII: (To select one subject of 100 marks only)
Code No. Subject Marks
45. Journalism & Mass Communication 100
46. Psychology 100
47. Geography 100
48. Sociology 100
49. Anthropology 100
50. Punjabi 100
51. Sindhi 100
52. Pashto 100
53. Balochi 100
54. Persian 100
55. Arabic 100

Note-1: Question papers in Urdu or other Pakistani regional languages (Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and
Balochi), Persian and Arabic should be answered in the respective languages unless otherwise directed in the
question paper.

Note-2: There will be two papers of 100 marks each of the subjects which carry 200 marks. In other subjects of 100 marks there will be one paper. Each paper will be of 3 hours duration.

Note-3: The candidates should expect some objective type question (MCQ’s) in compulsory and optional

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