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PMS Syllabus for the Subject of Sociology Papers

 

PAPER – I

PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY

Total Marks: 100

1. INTRODUCTION

i. Definition of Sociology
ii. Culture and Society
iii. Socialization, Norms, Values, Status and Roles
iv. Sociological Perspectives
a. Structuralism
b. Interpretive theories
c. Modernism And Postmodernism

2. FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS

i. Sociological perspectives on the family

  • The functionalist perspective
  • The traditional Marxist perspective
  • Marxist feminist and radical feminist perspective on the family

ii. Family ideology
iii. Politics, Social Policy and the family
iv. Is the family a declining social institution?

3. SEX AND GENDER
i. Sex: A Biological Distinction
ii. Gender: A Cultural Distinction

  • Gender in global perspective
  • Patriarchy and sexism

iii. Gender Socialization

  • Gender and the family
  • Gender and the peer group
  • Gender and schooling
  • Gender and the mass media

iv. Gender Stratification

  • Working men and women
  • Housework: women’s “second shift”
  • Gender, income and wealth
  • Gender and education
  • Gender and politics
  • Gender and the Military
  • Are women a minority?
  • Minority women
  • Violence against women

v. Theoretical analysis of gender

  • Structural-Functional Analysis
  • Social-conflict analysis

vi. Feminism

  • Basic feminist ideas
  • Variations within feminism
  • Opposition to feminism

4. Health

i. What is meant by ‘health’, ‘illness’ and ‘disease’?
ii. Disability
iii. The medical and social models of health

  • The medical (biomedical) model of health
  • The social model of health

iv. Becoming a health statistic
v. Medicine and social control; the sick role

  • Features of the sick role

vi. The power of the medical profession

  • Protecting the patient
  • Criticisms of the medical professions
  • The erosion of medical power?

vii. Marxist approaches to health and medicine
viii. How society influences health

  • Improvements in health in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

ix. The new ‘disease burden’

  • What are the causes of these new diseases?

x. Inequalities in health

  • Social class inequalities in health
  • Gender differences in health

xi. Inequalities in health

  • Funding
  • Geography
  • Social Class
  • Disability

xii. Mental illness

  • What is mental illness?
  • Care in the community
  • The biomedical approach to mental illness
  • The social construction of mental illness

5. THE MASS MEDIA

1) The power of the media
2) Ownership of the mass media
3) The mass media and ideology
4) Do the owners of the media control their content?

  • The manipulative or instrumentalist approach
  • The dominant ideology or hegemonic approach
  • The pluralist approach

5) Violence and the media
6) What affects the content of the media? Bias in the media

  • The owners
  • Making a profit
  • Organizational constraints
  • Agenda-setting
  • Gate-keeping
  • Norm-setting

7) The presentation and social construction of the news

  • Inaccurate and false reporting
  • News values and ‘newsworthiness’
  • The assumptions and activities of journalists

8) The media, crime and deviance
9) Media Representation and Stereotyping

  • Media representations of age
  • Media representations of social class
  • Media representations of ethnicity
  • Media representations of gender
  • Media representations of disability

10) The mass media and mass culture

  • ‘Mass culture’
  • ‘High culture’
  • A Marxist view of mass culture
  • Criticism of the idea of a ‘mass culture’

6. EDUCATION

1. The Function of Schooling

  • Socialization
  • Culture Innovation
  • Social Integration
  • Social Placement
  • Latent Functions of Schooling

2. Schooling and social Inequality

  • Social control
  • Standardized testing
  • School tracking
  • Inequality among schools
  • Access to higher education
  • Credentialism
  • Privilege and personal merit

7. COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

1. Localized Collectives: Crowds

  • Mobs and riots
  • Crowds, mobs and social change
  • Explaining crowd behavior

2. Dispersed collectives: mass behavior

  • Rumor and gossip
  • Public opinion and propaganda
  • Panic and mass hysteria
  • Fashions and fads

3. Social Movement

  • Types of social movements
  • Explaining social movements
  • Gender and social movements
  • Stages and social movements
  • Social movements and social change
  • Social engineering

8. ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY

1. Ecology: The study of the natural environment

  • The role of sociology
  • The global dimension
  • The historical dimension
  • Population increase
  • Cultural patterns: growth and limits

2. Environmental Issues

  • Solid waste: the disposable society
  • Preserving clean water
  • Cleaning the air
  • Acid rain
  • The rain forests

3. Society and the environment: theoretical analysis

  • Structural-functional analysis
  • Cultural ecology
  • Social-conflict analysis
  • Alternative dispute resolution
  • Environmental racism

9. RELIGION IN MODERN SOCIETY

a. Sociological theories and ideas

  • Sociological study of religion
  • Theories of religion

b. Real world religions

  • Totemism and animism
  • Judasim, Christianity and Islam
  • The religions of the Far East
  • Religious organizations

c. Secularization and religious revival

10.POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

1. Power and Authority
i. Traditional authority
ii. Regional-legal authority
iii. Charismatic authority

2. Politics in global perspective
i. Monarchy
ii. Democracy
iii. Authoritarianism
iv. Totalitarianism
v. A Global political system?

3. Theoretical analysis of power in society
i. The pluralist model: the people rule
ii. The Power-elite model: a few people rule
iii. The Marxist model: bias in the system itself

4. Power beyond the rules
i. Revolution
ii. Terrorism

5. War And Peace
i. The causes of war
ii. The costs and causes of militarism
iii. Nuclear weapons
iv. The pursuit of peace

11.POPULATION AND URBANIZATION

1. Demography: the study of population
i. Fertility
ii. Mortality
iii. Migration
iv. Population growth
v. Population composition

2. History and Theory of Population Growth
i. Malthusian theory
ii. Demographic transition theory
iii. Global population today: a brief survey

PAPER-II
APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

Total Marks: 100

1. SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS

1) Influences on the choice of research method

  • Positivism and research methods
  • Interpretive research methods
  • Other influences on the choice of research methods

2) Key issues in social research

  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Ethics

3) Primary and Secondary data
4) Qualitative secondary sources

  • The advantage and uses of qualitative secondary sources
  • The disadvantages and limitations of qualitative secondary sources
  • Content analysis

5) Qualitative secondary sources

  • The advantages and uses of official statistics
  • The problems and limitations of official statistics

6) The experimental (laboratory) methods of research

  • Problems of using the experimental method in sociology
  • Field experiments

7) The Comparative methods
8) Surveys and sampling methods

  • Who uses the survey method?
  • Representativeness and sampling
  • The stages of a survey
  • Problems of the social survey

9) Questionnaires

  • The nature and use of questionnaires
  • Questionnaire design: principle and problems
  • Types of questionnaires
  • The validity of questionnaire research

10) Interviews

  • Structure of formal interviews
  • Unstructured or informal interviews
  • General problems of interviews
  • Concluding remarks on interviews

11) Participant observation

  • The theoretical context of participant observation
  • The stages of participant observation and related problems
  • The strengths and weakness as of participant observation
  • Internal and external consistency in participant observation

12) Non-participant observation
13) Longitudinal studies
14) Case studies and life histories
15) Methodological pluralism and triangulation
16) Doing your own research

  • Hypothesis or aim
  • Context and concepts
  • Main research methods and reasons for their use
  • Potential problems

17) An example of coursework proposal

2. GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE

1. Globalization

  • Factors contributing to globalization
  • The globalization debate
  • The impact of globalization
  • Global Interdependence

2. What is Social Change?

  • Globalization: Essential Features
  • Causes and consequences of social change
  • Factors contributing to globalization
  • The globalization debate
  • The impact of globalization

3. Innovations

i. International tourism

  • Changes in the ways people relate to information
  • The cultural base and the rate of change
  • Cultural lag
  • Revolutionary ideas

ii. Conflict

  • The cold war origin of the internet

iii. The pursuit of profit

  • World system theory
  • Responses to economic stagnation

3. GLOBAL INEQUALITY

1. Global economic inequality

  • High-income countries
  • Middle-income countries
  • Low-income countries
  • Is global economic inequality increasing?

2. Life in rich and poor countries

  • Health
  • Hunger, malnutrition and famine
  • Education and Literacy

3. Can poor countries become rich?

  • Theories of development
  • Evaluating theories of development
  • The role of international organizations and global inequality
  • Global economic inequality in a changing world

4. World population growth

  • Population analysis: demography
  • Dynamics of population change
  • Malthusianism
  • The demographic transition
  • Prospects of change

4. CRIME AND DEVIANCE

1. Basic concepts

2. Explaining crime and deviance: sociological theories

  • Functionalist Theories
  • Integrationist theory
  • Conflict theories: ‘the new criminology’
  • Control theories
  • Theoretical conclusions

3. Patterns of crime in Pakistan

  • Crime and crime statistics

4. Victims and perpetrators of crime

  • Gender and crime
  • Youth and crime
  • White-collar crime
  • Organized crime
  • Cyber crime

5. Prisons: is it the answer to crime?

6. Conclusion: deviance and social order

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