This part of the course relates to the traits of political thought as presented historically by the Western and Muslim philosophers.
1. Western Political Thought: Plato; Aristotle; Machiavelli; Hobbes; Locke; Rousseau; Marxism; Leninism; Maoism
2. Muslim Political Thought: AI-Farabi; AI-Mawardi; AI-Ghazali; Tusi; Ibn-e-Khaldoon; Allama Iqbal
The Institution of State and its attributes for human welfare have been highlighted here.
3. Welfare State Perceptions: Western and Islamic
4. Basic Concepts: Sovereignty; Constitutionalism; Power Distribution; Law; Liberty; Equality; Rights and Duties
5. Modes of Participation: Demands; Decisions; Public Opinion;Political Parties; Pressure Groups; Representation
6. Institutions and Leadership:
i) Legislature; Executive; Judiciary
ii) Competing Elites: Political; Military; Bureaucratic
7. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Democracy; Dictatorship; Unitary; Federation; Confederation; Parliamentary; Presidential; Authoritarian
PAPER – II
Total Marks: 100
Taking contemporary state as a dynamic phenomenon, having its own system structures and assigned functions, a comparative analysis of some outstanding developed and developing state systems is made here. The emphasis is equally on Pakistan as an emerging political system of the world.
8. Concept of Political System:
i) Easton on Behaviorism
ii) Almond on Functionalism
9. Developed Political Systems:
Main constitutional features of USA, UK, France and former USSR
10. Developing Political Systems:
Main constitutional features of Turkey, India and China.
11. Pakistan as a Nation-State: Rise of Muslim Nationalism in South Asia under the dynamic leaderships of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah
12. Political System of Pakistan: Comparative and critical analysis of the Constitutions of 1956, 1962 and 1973 (with amendments)