Notes on Abbreviations

J, K, L
JCO: Junior Commissioned Officer
JNNURM: Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
JPC: Joint Parliamentary Committee
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group
JWG: Joint Working Group
KG: Kindergarten
Kg: Kilogramme
KPO: Knowledge Process Outsourcing
LAC: Line of Actual Control
LCA: Light Combat Aircraft
LDC: Least Developed Countries
LHC: Large Hadron Collider
LIC: Life Insurance Corporation (of India)
LLP: Limited Liability Partnership
LOAC: Line of Actual Control
LTA: Light Transport Aircraft
LTTE: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

M
MAT: Minimum Alternative Tax
MER: Mars Exploration Rover
MBBS: Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
MCF: Master Control Facility
MEP: Minimum Export Price
MES: Military Engineering Service
METSAT: Meteorological Satellite
MFA: Multi-Fibre Agreement
MFN: Most Favoured Nation
MIP: Moon Impact Probe
MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service
MMTC: Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation of India
MNC: Multi-national Corporation
MNIC: Multi-purpose National Identity Card
MODEM: Modulator-Demodulator
MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRTPC: Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission
MRTS: Mass Rapid Transit System
MSA: Maritime Safety Agency
MSCF: Maritime Security Cooperation Framework
Mss: Manuscript
MTCR: Missile Technology Control Regime
MTO: Multilateral Trade Organisation
MVC: Maha Vir Chakra
MUNO: Maha Vir Chakra

N
NAA: National Airport Authority
NABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. (It helps rural development by providing re-finance facility).
NACIL: National Aviation Company of India Ltd
NADA: National Anti-Doping Agency
NAEP: National Adult Education Programme
NAFTA: North America Free Trade Agreement
NAG: National Air Guard
NAM: Non-aligned Movement
NAMA: Non-Agriculture Market Access
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (of the U.S.A.)
NASDAQ: National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation
NATA: Natural Aptitude Test for Architecture
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NAV: Net Asset Value
NB: Nota bene; note well, or take notice
NCA: Nuclear Command Authority
NCC: National Cadet Corps
NCEP: National Committee on Environmental Planning
NCERT: National Council of Education Research and Training
NCR: National Capital Region
NDA: National Defence Academy; National Democratic Alliance
NDNC: National Do Not Call (Registry)
NDPS: Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances
NDRF: National Disaster Response Force
NDTL: National Dope Testing Laboratory
NeGP: National e-governance Plan
NEDB: North-Eastern Development Bank
NEP: National Education Policy
NEPA: National Environment Protection Authority
NFO: New Fund Offers
NHDP: National Highways Development Project
NHRC: National Human Rights Commission
NIC: National Integration Council
NIFT: National Institute of Fashion Technology
NIO: National Institute of Oceanography
NIS: National Institute of Sports
NIT: National Institute of Technology
NLMA: National Literacy Mission Authority
NMD: Nuclear Missile Defence
NMDC: National Mineral Development Corporation
NPL: National Physical Laboratory
NPR: National Population Register
NPT: (Nuclear) Non-Proliferation Treaty
NRBI: National Rural Bank of India
NREGA: National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
NREP: National Rural Employment Programme
NRF: National Renewal Fund
NRI: Non-Resident Indian
NRR: National Reproduction Rate
NRSA: National Remote Sensing Agency
NSA: National Security Act
NSC: National Service Corps; National Security Council
NSDL: National Securities Depository Limited
NSE: National Stock Exchange
NSR: National Skills Registry
NTPC: National Thermal Power Corporation
NWDA: National Water Development Agency
NWRC: National Water Resources Council

O
OAS: Organisation of American States
OAU: Organisation of African Unity
OBC: Other Backward Communities
OBU: Offshore Banking Unit
ODA: Official Development Assistance
ODF: Open Document Format
ODS: Ozone Depletion Substances
OECD: Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development
OGL: Open General Licence
OIC: Organisation of Islamic Countries
OIGS: On India Government Service
OIL: Oil India Limited
OM: Order of Merit
ONGC: Oil and Natural Gas Commission
OPEC: Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OSCE: Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe
OSD: Officer on Special Duty
OXML: Open Extended Marking Language

P
PAC: Political Affairs Committee; Public Accounts Committee
PACER: Programme for Acceleration of Commercial Energy Research
PAN: Permanent Account Number (of Income-Tax)
PATA: Pacific-Asia Travel Association
PCS: Public Civil Service; Punjab Civil Service
PIB: Press Information Bureau
Pin Code: Postal Index Number Code
PIO: Persons of Indian Origin
PLF: Plant Load Factor
PM: Post Meridiem; after-noon; also Postmaster; Prime Minister; post-mortem (after death)
PMG: Postmaster General
PN: Participatory Note
PO: Post Office; Postal Order
POPs: Persistent Organic Pollutants; Point of Purchase
POTA: Prevention of Terrorism Act
POW: Prisoner of War
PP: Public Prosecutor; Particular Person
PRO: Public Relations Officer
PS: Post Scriptum; Post Script; written after
PSC: Public Service Commission
PSE: Public Sector Enterprises
PSLV: Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
PTA: Preferential Trade Area
PTI: Press Trust of India
PTO: Please Turn Over; Privilege Ticket Order
PUFA: Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids
PVC: Param Vir Chakra
PVSM: Param Vishisht Sewa Medal
PWD: Public Works Department

Q, R
QMG: Quarter Master General
QR: Quantitative Restriction
RAF: Rapid Action Force
RAM: Random Access Memory
RBI: Reserve Bank of India
RCC: Reinforced Concrete Cement
RDF: Rapid Development Force
RDS: Radio Data Servicing
RDSS: Radio Determination Satellite Service
REACH: Rehabilitate, Educate and Support Street Children
RLO: Returned Letter Office
RLV: Reusable Launch Vehicle
RPM: Revolution Per Minute
RPO: Recruitment Process Outsourcing; Regional Passport Officer
RRB: Regional Rural Bank
RRPI: Rural Retail Price Index
RSS: Rashtriya Swyamsevak Sangh
RSVP: Repondez s’il vous plait (Fr.) reply, if you please
RTGS: Real Time Gross Settlement System

S
SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation
SAFTA: South Asian Free Trade Area
SAIL: Steel Authority of India Limited
SAPTA: SAARC Preferential Trading Agreement
SARS: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SATNAV: Satellite Navigation (Initiative)
SAVE: SAARC Audio Visual Exchange
SC: Security Council; Supreme Court; Scheduled Caste
SCI: Shipping Corporation of India
SCO: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
SCOPE: Standing Conference on Public Enterprises
SDO: Sub-Divisional Officer
SDR: Special Drawing Rights (created by the World Bank)
SEBI: Securities and Exchange Board of India
SFC: Strategic Forces Command
SGPC: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee
SIDBI: Small Industries Development Bank of India
SIT: Special Investigation Team
SITE: Satellite Instructional Television Experiment
SLR: Statutory Liquidity Ratio
SMS: Short Messaging Service; Subscriber Management System
SOS: Save Our Souls—distress signal
SPG: Special Protection Group
SPIN: Software Process Improvement Networks
SPV: Solar Photo Voltaic
SQUID: Super-conducting Quantum Interference Device
SRE: Space Capsule Recovery Experiment
SRV: Submarine Rescue Vessel
SSN: Social Security Number
STARS: Satellite Tracking and Ranging Station
START: Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
STEP: Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Park
STT: Securities Transaction Tax
SWAN: State-wide Area Network
SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Financial Telecommunications

T
TA: Travelling Allowance; Territorial Army
TAAI: Travel Agents Association of India
TACDE: Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment
TADA: Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act
TAPS: Tarapur Atomic Power Station
TB: Tuberculosis
TDC: Transport Development Council
TDS: Tax Deduction at Source
TDSAT: Telecom Dispute Settlement Appellate Tribunal
TERLS: Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station
TIFR: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
TIN: Tax Information Network
TINXSYS: Tax Information Exchange System
TISCO: Tata Iron and Steel Company
TMC: Terrain Mapping Camera
TMO: Telegraphic Money Order
TNT: Tri-nitro-toluene (high explosive)
TPP: 20-Point Programme
TRAI: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
TRIMs: Trade Related Investment Measures
TRIPS: Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
TRP: Television Rating Points; Tax Return Preparer
TRYSEM: Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment
TTE: Travelling Ticket Examiner
TTF: Tourism Task Force

U
UAE: United Arab Emirates
UAV: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UF: United Front
UFO: Unidentified Flying Object
UGC: University Grants Commission
ULFA: United Liberation Front of Assam
UN: United Nations
UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP: United Nations Development Programme
UNEF: United Nations Emergency Force
UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNFPO: United Nations Fund for Population Activities
UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNHRC: United Nations Human Rights Commission
UNI: United News of India
UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s (Emergency) Fund
UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
UNRRA: United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
UNTAC: United Nations Transitional Authority for Cambodia
UPA: United Progressive Alliance
UPSC: Union Public Service Commission
UPTN: Universal Personal Telephone Number
USA: United States of America
USIS: United States Information Service

V
VAT: Value-added Tax
VC: Vice-Chancellor; Vice Counsel; Victoria Cross; Vir Chakra
VDIS: Voluntary Disclosure of Income Scheme
VHRR: Very High Resolution Radiometer
VIP: Very Important Person
VLSI: Very Large Scale Integration
VOIP: Voice Over Internet Protocol
VPN: Virtual Private Network
VPP: Value Payable Post
VRS: Voluntary Retirement Scheme
VSAT: Very Small Aperture Terminals

W
WADA: World Anti-Doping Agency
WAP: Wireless Application Protocol
WAVE: Wireless Access for Virtual Enterprise
WDF: Wasteland Development Force
WEF: World Economic Forum
WFP: World Food Programme
WFTU: World Federation of Trade Unions
WGIG: Working Group on Internet Governance
WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organisation
WLL: Wireless in Local Loop
WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction
WR: Western Railway
WTO: World Trade Organisation (previously called GATT); also World Tourism Organisation

X, Y, Z
XML: eXtensible Markup Language
YMCA: Young Men’s Christian Association
YWCA: Young Women’s Christian Association
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (Unep)

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