MCAT MBBS BDS Entry Test Chemistry syllabus Sample MCQs Practice Questions Test

In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Define relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, based on the12Cscale.
b) Explain mole in terms of the Avogadro’s constant.
c) Applymass spectrometric technique in determining the relative atomic mass of anelement using the mass spectral data provided.
d) Calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data.
e) Understand stoichiometric calculations using mole concept involving.
i) Reacting masses
ii) Volume of gases
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Understate gaseous state with reference to:
i) Postulates of kinetic molecular theory
ii) Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior
iii) Gas laws: Boyle’s law, Charles law, Avogadro’s law and gas equation (PV=nRT)and calculations involving gas laws.
iv) Deviation of real gases from ideal behaviour at low temperature and high pressure
v) Causes of deviation from ideal behaviour
vi) Conditions necessary for gasses to approach ideal behaviour
b) Discuss liquid state with reference to:
Evaporation, vapour pressure, boiling and hydrogen bonding in water
c) Explain the lattice structure of a crystalline solid with special emphasis on:
i) Giant ionic structure, as in sodium chloride.
ii) Simple molecular, as in iodine
iii) Giant molecular, as in graphite; diamond; silicon(IV) oxide
iv) Hydrogen-bonded, as in ice
v) Metallic as in Cu and Fe.
d) Outline the importance of hydrogen bonding to the physical properties of substances,
including NH3, H2O, C2H5OH and ice.
e) Suggest from quoted physical data the type of structure and bonding present in asubstance

In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Identify and describe the proton, neutron and electron in terms of their relative charges and relative masses
b) Discuss the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields
c) Calculate the distribution of mass and charges within an atom from the given data
d) Deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atomsand ions for a given proton and nucleon numbers/charge.
i) Describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton number and nucleon number
ii) Distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of neutrons present
f) Describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal
quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals
g) Describe the shapes of s and p orbitals
h) State the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number/charge
i) Explain:
i) Ionization energy
ii) The factors influencing the ionization energies of elements
iii) The trends in ionization energies across a Period and down a Group of the Periodic Table
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Characterise electrovalent (ionic) bond as in sodium chloride and Calcium oxide.
b) Use the ‘dot-and-cross’ diagrams to explain
i) Covalent bonding, as in hydrogen(H2); oxygen(O2); chlorine(Cl2); hydrogen chloride; carbon dioxide; methane and ethene
ii) Co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding, as in the formation of the ammonium ionand in H3N+–-BF3.
c) Describe the shapes and bond angles in molecules by using the qualitative model of  electron-pair repulsion theory up to 4 pairs of electron including bonded electron pair and lone pair around central atom.
d) Describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overlap, giving σ and Π bonds
e) Explain the shape of, and bond angles in ethane, ethene and benzene molecules in terms of σ and Π bonds
f) Describe hydrogen bonding, using ammonia and water as simple examples of molecules containing N-H and O-H groups
g) Explain the terms bond energy, bond length and bond polarity and use them to compare the reactivities of covalent bonds
h) Describe intermolecular forces (Van der Waal’sforces), based on permanent and induced dipoles, asin CHCl
3,Br2 and in liquid noble gases
i) Describe metallic bonding in terms of a lattice of positive ions surrounded by mobile electrons
j) Describe, interpret and/or predict the effect of different types of bonding (ionic
bonding; covalent bonding; hydrogen bonding; Van der Waal’sforces and metallic bonding) on the physical properties of substances
k) Deduce the type of bonding present in a substance from the given information
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Understand concept of energy changes during chemical reactions with examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions.
b) Explain and use the terms:
i) Enthalpy change of reaction and standard conditions, with particular reference to:Formation; combustion; hydration; solution; neutralization and atomisation
ii) Bond energy (ΔH positive, i.e. bond breaking)
iii) Lattice energy (ΔH negative, i.e. gaseous ions to solid lattice)
c) Find heat of reactions/neutralization from experimental results using mathematical
d) Explain, in qualitative terms, the effect of ionic charge and of ionic radius on the numerical magnitude of lattice energy
e) Apply Hess’sLaw to construct simple energy cycles, and carry out calculations involving such cycles and relevant energy terms, with particula r reference to:
i) Determining enthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct experiment, e.g. an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy changes of combustion
ii) Average bond energies
iii) Born-Haber cycles (including ionisation energy and electron affinity)

In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Describe and explain following concentration units of solutions
i) Percentage composition
ii) Molarity (M)
iii) Molality (m)
iv) Mole fraction (X)
v) Parts of million (ppm)
b) Understand concept and applications of colligative propertiessuch as:
i) Elevation of boiling point
ii) Depression of freezing point
iii) Osmotic pressure
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Explain the industrial processes of the electrolysis of brine, using a diaphragm c ell
b) Describe and explain redox processes in terms of electron transfer and/or of changes
in oxidation number
c) Define the terms:
 Standard electrode (redox) potential and Standard cell potential
d) Describe the standard hydrogen electrode as reference electrode
e) Describe methods used to measure the standard electrode potentials of metals or
non-metals in contact with their ions in aqueous solution
f) Calculate a standard cell potential by combining two standard electrode potentials
g) Use standard cell potentials to:
i) Explain/deduce the direction of electron flow in the external circuit.
ii) Predict the feasibility of a reaction
h) Construct redox equations using the relevant half-equations
i) State the possible advantages of developing the H2/O
fuel cell
j) Predict and to identify the substance liberated during electrolysis from the state of
electrolyte (molten or aqueous), position in the redox series (electrode potential) and
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Explain, interms of rates of the forward and reverse reactions, what is meant by a
reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium
b) State Le Chatelier’s Principle and apply it to deduce qualitatively the effects of changes in temperature, concentration or pressure, on a system at equilibrium
c) Deduce whether changes in concentration, pressure or temperature or the presence
of a catalyst affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction
d) Deduce expressions for equilibrium constantsin terms of concentrations, Kc,and partial pressures, Kp
e) Calculate the values of equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or partial pressures from appropriate data
f) Calculate the quantities present at equilibrium, given appropriate data
g) Describe and explain the conditions used in the Haber process.
h) Understand and use the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases
i) Explain qualitatively the differences in behaviour between strong and weak acids and
bases and the pH values of their aqueous solutions in terms of the extent of
j) Explain the terms pH; Ka; pKa; Kw and use them in calculations
k) Calculate [H
(aq)] and pH values for strong and weak acids and strong bases
l) Explain how buffer solutions control pH
m) Calculate the pH of buffer solutions from the given appropriate data
n) Show understanding of, and use, the concept of solubility product, Ksp
o) Calculate Ksp from concentrations and vice versa
p) Show understanding of the common ion effect
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Explain anduse the terms: rate of reaction; activation energy; catalysis; rate
equation; order of reaction; rate constant; half-life of a reaction; rate-determining
b) Explain qualitatively, in terms of collisions, the effect of concentration changes on the
rate of a reaction
c) Explain that, in the presence of a catalyst, a reaction has a different mechanism, i.e.
one of lower activation energy
d) Describe enzymes as biological catalysts (proteins) which may have specific activity
e) Construct and use rate equations of theform
Rate = k[A]
with special emphasis on:
i) Deducing the order of a reaction by the initial rates method
ii) Justifying, for zero-and first-order reactions, the order of reaction from
concentration-time graphs
iii) Verifying that a suggested reaction mechanism is consistent with the observed
iv) Predicting the order that would result from a given reaction mechanism (and vice
v) Calculating an initial rate using concentration data
f) Show understanding that the half-life of a first-order reaction is independent of initial
concentration and use the half-life to calculate order of reaction.
g) Calculate the rate constant from the given data
h) Name a suitable method for studying the rate of a reaction, from given information
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
Discuss the variation in the physical properties of elements belonging to period 2 and 3
and to describe and explain the periodicity in the following physical properties of
a) Atomic radius
b) Ionic radius
c) Melting point
d) Boiling point
e) Electrical conductivity
f) Ionization energy
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
Describe and explain the variation in the properties of group II, IV and VII elements
from top to bottom with special emphasis on:
a) Reactions of group-II elements with oxygen and water
b) Characteristics of oxides of carbon and silicon
c) Properties of halogens and uses of chlorine in water purification and as bleaching
d) Uses of Nobel gases (group VIII)
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
Discuss the chemistry of transition elements of 3-d series with special emphasis on:
a) Electronic configuration
b) Variable oxidation states
c) Use as a catalyst
d) Formation of complexes
e) Colour of transition metal complexes
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Describe the inertness of Nitrogen
b) Manufacture of Ammonia by Haber process
c) Discuss the preparation of Nitric acid and nitrogenous fertilizers
d) Describe the presence of Suphur dioxide in the atmosphere which causes acid rain
e) Describe the manufacture of Sulphuric acid by contact method
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Classify the organic compounds
b) Explain the types of bond fission, homolytic and heterolytic
c) Discuss the types of organic reactions; Polar and free radical
d) Discuss the types of reagents; nucleophile, electrophile and free radicals
e) Explain isomerism; structural and cis-trans
f) Describe and explain condensed structural formula, displayed and skeletal formula
g) Discuss nomenclature of organic compounds with reference to IUPAC names of
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alcohols and Acids
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
Describe the chemistry of Alkanes with emphasis on
a) Combustion
b) Free radical substitution including mechanism
Discuss the chemistry of Alkeneswith emphasis on
a) Preparation of alkenes by elimination reactions
i) Dehydration of alcohols
ii) Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl halide
b) Reaction of Alkenes suchas
i) Catalytic hydrogenation
ii) Halogenation (Br2
addition to be used as a test of an alkene)
iii) Hydration of alkenes
iv) Reaction with HBr with special reference to Markownikoff’s rule
v) Oxidation of alkenes using Bayer’s reagent (cold alkaline KMnO4
) and using hot
concentrated acidic KMnO4
for cleavage of double bond
vi) Polymerization of ethene
Discuss chemistry of Benzenewith examples
a) Structure of benzene showing the delocalized Π-orbital which causes stability of
b) Electrolphillic substitution reactions of benzene
i) Nitration including mechanism
ii) Halogenation
iii) Friedel Craft’s reaction
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Discuss importance of halogenoalkanes in everyday life with special use of CFCs,
halothanes, CCl4
, CHCl
3and Teflon
b) Reaction of alkyl halides such as:
-reactions, (Reactions of alcohols with aqueousKOH, KCN in alcohol and with
aqueous NH3
Elimination reaction with alcoholic KOH to give alkenes.
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
Discus Alcohols with reference to
a) Classification of alcohols into primary, secondary and tertiary
b) Preparation of ethanol byfermentation process
c) Reaction of alcohol with
i) K2
Cr2O7 + H2SO4
ii) PCl
iii) Na-metal
iv) Alkaline aqueous Iodine
v) Esterification
vi) Dehydration
a) Discuss reactions of phenol with:
i) Bromine ii) HNO
b) Explain the relative acidity of water, ethanol and phenol
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Describe the structure of aldehyde and ketones
b) Discuss preparation of aldehydes and ketones by oxidation of alcohols
c) Discuss following reactions of aldehydes and ketones
i) Common to both
 2,4-DNPH
ii) Reactions in which Aldehydes differs from ketones
 Oxidation with K2
Cr2O7 + H2SO4, Tollen’s reagent and Fehling solution
 Reduction with sodium boron hydride
iii) Reaction which show presence of CH3
CO group in aldehydes and ketones
 Triiodomethane test (Iodo form test) using alkaline aqueous iodine.
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Show preparation of ethanoic acid by oxidation of ethanol or by the hydrolysis of
b) Discuss the reactions of ethanoic acid with emphasis on:
i) Salt formation
ii) Esterification
iii) Acid chloride formation
iv) Amide formation
c) Hydrolysis of amide in basic and acidic medium
d) Describe the strength of organic acids relative to chloro substituted acids
In this topic, candidate should be able to:
a) Describe the general structure of α-amino acids found in proteins
b) Classify the amino acids on the basis of nature of R-group
c) Describe what is meant by essential amino acids
d) Understand peptide bond formation and hydrolysis of polypeptides/protein
In this topic, candidate should be able to describe and explain
a) Addition polymers such as polyethene, polypropene, polystyrene and PVC.
b) Condensation polymers such as polyesters, nylon
c) Structure of proteins
d) Chemistry of carbohydrates
e) Chemistry of lipids
f) Enzymes
g) Structureand function of nucleic acid (DNA & RNA)
In this topic, candidate should be able to
a) Understand causes of water pollution
b) Discuss disposal of solid wastes
c) Understand chemistry and causes of
i) Smog
ii) Acid rain
iii) Ozone layer


A. Physical Chemistry
1. Fundamental concepts 02
2. States of matter 02
3. Atomic structure 02
4. Chemical bonding 02
5. Chemical energetics 02
6. Solutions 02
7. Electrochemistry 02
8. Chemical Equilibrium 02
9. Reaction kinetics 02
B. Inorganic Chemistry
1. Periods 02
2. Groups 02
3. Transition elements 02
4. Elements of biological importance 04
C. Organic Chemistry
1. Fundamental principles 02
2. Hydrocarbon 02
3. Alkyl halides 02
4. Alcohols and Phenols 04
5. Aldehydes and Ketones 03
6. Carboxylic acid 03
7. Amino acids 06
8. Macromolecules 06
9. Environmental chemistry 02
Total 58

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