1. INTRODUCTION TOBIOLOGY:
Branches of Biology
a) Define the following terms:
Transgenic plants, Cloning, Pasteurization, Preventive measure, Vaccinization,
2. CELL BIOLOGY:
Structure and Function of cellular organelles
a) Compare the structure of typical animal and plant cell
b) Compare and contrast the structure of Prokaryotic cell with Eukaryotic cells
c) Fluid mosaic model of cell membrane and transportation (diffusion, facilitated
diffusion, active and passive transport), endocytosis and exocytosis.
d) Outline the structure and function of the following organelles:
Nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Mitochondria, Centrioles,
e) Describe Meiotic errors (Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s
3. BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES:
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a) Discuss carbohydrates: Monosaccharides (Glucose), Oligosaccharides (Cane sugar,
sucrose), Polysaccharides (Starches)
b) Describe Proteins: Amino acids, structure of proteins
c) Describe Lipids: waxes, Phospholipids, Terpenoids
d) Describe the structure along its back bone composition and function of DNA as
hereditary material, Replication of DNA (Semi-conservative), Role of triplet codons,
Transcription (making up of mRNA), Translation (protein synthesis: role of
ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA)
e) Give the structure and typesof RNA (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA)
f) What is enzyme and its role in reducing activation energy?
g) Define the following terms:
Enzymes, Coenzyme, Co-factor, Prosthetic group, Apoenzyme and Holoenzyme
h) Explain the mode/mechanism of enzyme action
i) Describe the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate
concentration on the rate of enzyme catalysed reaction
j) Explain the effects of reversible and irreversible, competitive and non -competitive
inhibitorson the rate of enzyme activity
a) Which are the viral diseases in humans?
b) Reteroviruses and Acquired Immunodeficiency diseases
c) Describe the Life cycle of Bacteriophage (in detail with its all steps) including:
d) Describe the structure and types of bacteria
e) Discuss in detail:
Gram +ve bacteria
Gram –ve bacteria
Nutrition in bacteria
f) What are the uses and misuses of antibiotics?
g) What are molds (fungi)? How they are useful and harmful to mankind, give
h) Describe the Life cycle of fungus (Rhizopus).
5. KI N GDOM A NI MALI A:
Kingdom Animalia (phyla)
a) Porifera (with respect to their capacity to regenerate)
b) Coelenterata (coral reefs as habitat for sea animals)
d) Ascheliminthes (Infection in humans) with examples
e) Arthropoda (Economic importance of Arthropods and harmful impacts on Man)
f) Define the following terms:
Coelomata, Acoelomata, Pseudocoele, Radiata, Bilateria, Diploblastic and Triploblastic organization.
6. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY:
a) Digestive System
b) Gas exchange and Transportation
c) Excretion and Osmoregulation
d) Nervous System
f) Support and Movement
g) Hormonal Control (Endocrine Glands)
a) Digestive System:
Anatomy of digestive system and specify the digestion in:
-Oral cavity (role of saliva andenzymes)
b) Gas exchange and Transportation:
Anatomy of respiratory system (nostrils, trachea, lungs)
Explain the term breathing
Lymph, structure of heart, carriage of oxygen and carbon dioxide
c) Excretion and Osmoregulation:
Describe the structure of kidney and its functions with respect to homeostasis
What are Kidney problems and cures?
Kidney stones, lithotripsy, kidney transplant, dialysis, renal failure
What do you understand by the term Homeostasis?
d) Nervous System:
What is Nervous system and its types?
Explain CNS (Central Nervous System) including forebrain, mid brain, hind brain
and spinal cord
Explain PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) and its types (Autonomic and Sympathetic Nervous System)
Neurons (Associative, motor and sensory neuron)
Discuss the Nervous disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease)
What do you understand by Biological clock and circadian Rhythms?
Explain the Reproductive system in malein detail
Explain the Reproductive system in female / Menstrual cycle
Discuss the following Diseases in detail which are sexually transmitted:
– Gonorrhea, Syphilis, AIDS and how these diseases can be controlled
(treatmentis not required)
f) Support and Movement:
Explain the role of Human skeleton and skeletal musclesin locomotion
Explain the process of muscle contraction
What is Muscle fatigue, Tetani, Cramps?
Describe the structure and functions of involuntary, voluntary and cardiac muscles
g) Hormonal control (Endocrine glands):
What are hormones?
Describe Hypothalamus with its hormones.
Describe Pituitary gland with hormones secreted from its Anterior, Median and Posterior lobe
Describe adrenal gland with its hormones.
What are Islets of langerhans?
What are the hormones of alimentary canal (Gastrin, secretin)?
Thehormones of ovaries and testes
Immune system and define its components:
-Antibody (structure of antibody)
-Lymphocytes (B and T cells)
What is cell mediated response and humoral immune response?
Types of Immunity:
What do you mean by vaccination?
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration
a) Photosynthetic pigments and their absorption spectrum
b) Light dependent stage
c) Light independent stage
d) Describe the respiration at cellular level including:
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain
a) Explain Recombinant DNA Technology
b) Discuss Polymerase Chain Reaction (detailed procedure)
c) What do you understand by the following terms:
Components of Ecosystem
Energy flow in ecosystem
Impacts of Human activity on ecosystem
a) What is succession, give various stages of succession on land.
b) What is the significance of Human activity on ecosystem as population, deforestation,
ozonedepletion, Green house effect.
10. EVOLUTIONAND GENETICS:
Evidences of evolution
a) Theory of Darwin and Lamarck, also discuss the merits and demerits
b) Evidences of evolution from paleontology
c) Sex determination and sex linkage in humans
d) Define the following terms:
Mutations, Epistasis, Gene, Allele, Multiple allele
1. Introduction to Biology 01
2. Cell Biology 10
3. Biological Molecules
a) Carbohydrates 02
b) Proteins 01
c) Lipids 01
d) Nucleic Acids 01
e) Enzymes 04
a) Virus 01
b) Bacteria 02
c) Fungi 01
5. King dom A nim al i a
6. Human Physiology
a) Digestive System 05
b) Gas exchange and Transportation 05
c) Excretion and Osmoregulation 06
d) Nervous System 04
e) Reproduction 05
f) Support and Movement 05
g) Hormonal Control (Endocrine Glands) 04
h) Immunity 05
7. Bioenergetics 05
8. Biotechnology 05
9. Ecosystem 05
10.Evolutionand Genetics 05
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