CSS Syllabus for Subjects of Political Science Agriculture Forestry Sociology Journalism


Note.Subject/s carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.

Political Science


1.Political Science Total Marks-200
PAPER – I (Marks-100 )

Political Theory

1. Western Political Thought
Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Bentham, Mill, Marx, Lenin, Mao
2. Muslim Political Thought
AI-Farabi, Al-Mawardi, Nizam-ul-Mulik Tusi, Al-Ghazali, Ibn-I-Khaldun, Iqbal
Part ‘B’
1. The nature and emergence of Modern state system, Islamic concept of state.
2. Political concepts, Sovereignty, Law, Liberty, Equality, Rights and Duties.
3. Political Dynamics: Public Opinion, Propaganda, Political Parties, Pressure Groups.
4. Political Institutions: Legislature, Executive, Judiciary. Political Elites, Civil and Military Bureaucracy.
5. Forms of Government: Monarchy, Democracy. Dictatorship Unitary and Federal, Presidential and Parliamentary
6. Totalitarianism: Fascism, Communism.
7. Local Self-government: Theory and Practice with special reference to Pakistan.

PAPER-II (Marks – 100)


• Selected Political Systems: Nature and dynamics of major political institutions in U.S.A., U.K., France and Former Soviet Union,


• Political Systems of developing countries: Turkey, Iran, India and China.
• Rise of Muslim Nationalism in South Asia with special reference to the role of Sir Syed Abmed Khan, lqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
• A comparative and critical analysis of the 1956, 1962, 1973 and 1985 Constitutions of Pakistan.

2.Agriculture (Total Marks-100)

1. Natural Resources (Land, Water, Biological. Environmental. Solar and energy) as bases for agricultural production. Agriculture as integrated system of components like Crops, Livestock, Fisheries, Forestry. Range Management. Socio-economics etc. Role of research and newer technologies in current and future agriculture in Pakistan.
2. Elements of climate and their relationship with crop growth. Factors of soil, Soil formation and development of soil profile, Soil texture and structure and their management, Soil fertility and fertilizer requirement of various soils and crops, Role of organic matter in soil Water requirements’ of crops and water use efficiency. Cropping pattern and crop relations. Systems and types of farming; Nature, formation and reclamation of salt affected and water-logged soil, Soil erosion and conservation
3. Physiology of Growth and development, growth curves, growth regions, RGR, NAR and LAR in relation to biomass production. Seed growth and assimilate partitioning, Harvest index. Photoperiodic and thermoperiodic responses of crop plants, photorespiration, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle, factors affecting bioligical N fixation.
4. The modern concept of genetics, gene and gene function, application of genetics for the improvement of crops.
5. Modern concept of Horticultural industry, Plant propagation, Major management and breeding problems in fruits and vegetables
6. Pests arid diseases of agricultural crops, Principles and methods of pest and diseases control, Pesticides-their application and action, Modern concept and principles of insect pest management.
7. Role of agriculture in the national economy, Agricultural mechanization, Land tenure and Land reforms, Population problems of rural Pakistan, Major issues in agriculture and agricultural development in Pakistan.

3.Forestry (Total Marks -100)

• Ecology and Gcneral Silvicullure.
• Forest Statistics, Mensuration and Research Methods.
• Forest Management and Economics.
• Water Shed Management.
• Range Management
• Forests surveying and Engineering.
• Forest Policy, Law and Protection.
• Forest Biology, Wildlife and Natural Park Management.

(Total Marks – 100)

1. Individual, Culture and Society : Individual as a social product. The variety of social forms. Methods of socialization, Ethnocentricism, Norms and Values, Cultural Patterns, Varieties of sub-cultures.
2. Sociological Theory : The sociological perspectives- Evolutionary, order and conflict, Evolutionary Theorists : Ibn-i-Khaldun Spencer and Tannis, Order Theorists: August Comte, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Conflict Theorists : George Hegel. Karl Mars. Lewis Coser, Mills.
3. Methods of Sociological Research: Research Design, Surveys, Participant Observation. Experiments, Case Studies.
4. Social Interaction : Significance of social classes. Forms of social classes-Tribes. Biradaris, Castes, Classes and Feudal system in Pakistan. Social Mobility-nature of social mobility. Mobility determinants in Pakistan society, Social immobility. Culture in poverty.
5. Social Control: Mechanisms of social control-internal and external means of social control. Alienation, Integration-integrative pat terns in Pakistani Society.
6. Social and Cultural Change and Social Policy Processes of Social and Cultural Change-discovery, invention, diffusion. Factors in the rate of social and culture change, Incentives and inhibitions to social and cultural change in Pakistan Social planning and directed social and cultural change.
7. Community: The rural community, Traditional Characteristics of rural life, The urban community. Rural-Urban convergence, Urbanism, Future of cities in Pakistan.
8. Social Institutions: The nature and genesis of institutions, the process of institutions, Functions and Trade of Social Institutions, Family, Religion, Educational, Economic and Political Institutions.
9. Social Problems in Pakistan: Population Growth. Demographic Transition: Deviant Behaviour, Institutionalised evasions, social conflicts, internal and international Migration, Aging, Drug abuse, Prostitution. Smuggling, Illiteracy and Poverty.

5.Journalism (Mass Communication)
Total Marks-100

Note: Candidate will be asked to attempt total five questions including one compulsory (objective type) question. They will attempt at least two questions from each Section. Short note within the question (without choice) can also be given.

• Concept and process of communication : Source, Message, Channel, Destination. Encoding, Decoding, Noise, Feedback Oral vs. Written Communication, Two step flow of Communication, Role of Opinion Leader.
• Information and Journalism–Functions : Scanning the Horizon and reporting back.
1. News function
2. Educational Function
3. Opinion for motives
4. Entertainment function
• Pakistan Press, An overview of the evolution of the Muslim Press in South Asia before 1947 and development of the Pakistan Press since 1947, its social economic aspect; Trends and Characteristics: Problems and Prospects.
• Mass Media Components, functions and effects, Mass Media in Pakistan: Size and dispersion: Role in national development, Prospects and problems.
• News. Principles and techniques of News writing. Editorial Definition, ingredients, Types and functions of writing of Editorials.
• Public Relations : Definition, Purpose and scope, Ethics, PR in Pakistan Duties of PRO: PR Procedures and Processes.
• Magazine Journalism: Mag-Journalism in Pakistan. Types, Functioning Purpose its social aspects and scope.
• Press Release, Press Note, and Press Communication: Definitions and Basic ingredients, Writing of Press Release, Press Note and Press Communique.
• Advertising: Definition, functions, types and purpose. Its social and economic aspects, principles of successful advertising.
• Press Laws: Press Laws in Pakistan (gradual developments) and the Right to Know concepts of press freedom and responsibility, Ethics of Journalism


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