Group D (Science Subjects)
Note:Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
Physics Total Marks-200
PAPER – I (Marks-100)
• Vectors – Dots, Cross and triple products, Gradient, divergence and applications.
• Newtonian laws of motion; conservation law of energy; conservation of linear and angular momentum; Dynamics of rigid body; spin and pie-cession; gyroscope; Gravitation; planetary motion including satellite.
• Special theory of relativity. Mischelson – Morely experiment and Einstein’s postulates; Lorentz transformation; time dilation and length con traction; equivalence of mass and energy.
• Surface tension; Viscosity; Elasticity; fluid motion and Bernoullie’s theorem.
Waves and Oscillation
• Free oscillation with one and two degrees of freedom; forced and damped oscillations and phenomenon of resonance. Travelling waves and transmission of energy; Phase and Group velocity; standing waves.
• Reflection, Refraction, Interference, Diffraction and Polarization of waves; interfero-meter and Newton’s rings; Diffraction Gratings and their resolving power; spectro-meters. Electromagnetic wave equation: normal and anamolous dispersion; coherence, laser and its application.
Heat and Thermodynamics
• Perfect gas and Van der Waals equation; Three Laws of Thermodynamics, Thermal properties of Simple system production and measurement of low temperatures; kinetic theory of gases; Maxwellian distribution of molecular velocities; Brownian motion: Transport phenomena. Classical Maxwell -Boltzmann Statistics and its application: Quantum Bose – Einstein and Fermi-Dirac Statistics.
PAPER – II (Marks-100)
Electricity and Magnetism
• Electric field due to point charges, Gauss’ law Electric potential and poisson and Laplace’s equation Dielectric medium and Polarization:
• Capacitance; Moving charges and magnetic field Ampere’s law; Vector potential; Magnetic properties of matter; Transient current: Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction; Alternating current and LRO circuit. Maxwell’s equations; Poynting theorem and Poynting Vector.
• Thermionic emission; Space charge: Diode. Triode Tetrode; Pentode and their static and dynamic characteristics; Amplitude modulation and demodulation or detection. Various basic circuits for rectification, amplification modulation and detection connected with radio receivers and transmission; n and p type semiconductors; Biased function; Transistors; Common base and common emitter configurations.
• Bohr theory and quantum numbers including electron spin; Pauli’s exclusion principle; Spectra of simple systems with one or two valence electrons. Photo electric effect Compton scattering; pair production; Lande’s g factor and Zeeman effect. Rainan effect; Waves and particles and De Broglie’s Hypothesis; Shrodinger wave equation and its application to one dimensional harmic oscillator. Heisen berg’s uncertainly principle.
• Structure of Nuclei; Radioactivity infinity, beta and decay. Methods of detection, Mass Sepectrometer. Accelerators. Phenomenon of fission; reactor and nuclear power, nuclear fusion and its application. Elementary particles and their properties.
Geology (Total Marks – 200)
PAPER – I (Marks – 100)
1. General Geology: Earth as a planet. its origin and age. Internal structure of the earth and lithospheric plates. Internal and external geological processes such as earth-quakes, volcanism, weathering, erosion and deposition. Geomorphic cycles.
2. Structural Geology: Primary sedimentary structures. Mechanical properties of rocks. Description and classification of secondary structures. Structures in Metamorphic rocks. Orogeny and geosynclines in plate tectonic framework. Major tectonic features of the earth. Geodynamics of Pakistan.
3. Palaeontology: Fossils and their preservation. Morphology, evolution and geologic distribution of major invertebrate phylla. Micropalaeontology of Foraminifera. Vertebrate and plant fossils.
4. Stratigraphy: Stratigraphic nomenclature, and stratigraphic codes. Principles of correlation. Sedimentary basins of Pakistan and detailed stratigraphy of type sections.
5. Mineralogy: Chemical composition of the earth crust. Minerals. their physical and chemical properties. Space lattice. symmetry classes and crystal systems. Crystal optics. Atomic structure of crystals and X-Ray diffraction. Detailed study of important rock forming minerals.
6. Petrology: Origin and evolution of magma. Binary and Termary silicate systems. Description of important plutonic and volcanic associations. Sedimentary environments and processes. Petrography of major types of sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism. metamorphic zones and facies. Description of principle types of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism and magmatism in relation to plate tectonics.
PAPER – II (Marks 100)
1. Economic Geology: Processes of formation of mineral deposits. Detailed study of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits of Pakistan. Mineral based industries. Metallogeny of Pakistan.
2. Energy Resources: Constitution and kinds of coal. Geology of Pakistan coal fields. Origin, migration and accumulation of natural hydro carbons. Oil well drilling and drilling muds. Oil and gas fields of Pakistan. Origin and occurrence of radioactive minerals. Pakistan resource of atomic energy minerals. Geothermal energy: recovery and uses.
3. Engineering Geology: Geological factors in the construction of civil engineering projects. Geology of Dam Sites of Pakistan. Landslides and stability of slopes. Open and subsurface excavations. Construction materials and building stones. Site investigation and foundation analysis.
4. Hydrogeology: Groundwater occurrence and types of acquifers. Movement of groundwater. Salinity and waterlogging. Water resources of Pakistan.
5. Exploration Geology: Geological mapping and tradition prospecting methods. Photogeology and remote sensing mineral exploration. Disperson of trace elements and geochemical surveys. Geophysical techniques for prospecting of solid minerals, oil and water.
Geography (Total Marks – 200)
PAPER – I (Marks- 100)
PHYSICAL AND GENERAL GEOGRAPHY
1. Elements of Weather and Climate
Insolation and Atmospheric Temperature. Global Radiation and Heat Balance. Atmospheric Pressure and Winds. Humidity and Precipitation. Air Masses. Fronts and Atmospheric Disturbances. Classification of Climate and Climatic Regions.
Major landforms, Rocks : origin, formation and classification. Internal Structure of the Earth. Earth quakes and Volcancity. Weathering. Mass Wasting. Erosion and Deposition. Cycle of Erosion. Landforms produced by Underground and Ground Water. Wind and Glaciers.
Continental Margins and the Sea Floor. Distribution of Temperature and Salinity. Movements of the Ocean Water: Waves. Currents and Tides.
4. Study of Maps
Types of maps: Topographical Maps, Aerial Photographs. Weather Maps. Map Projections: classification and choice of projections. Merits and Demerits of Cylindrical. Conical and Zenithal Projections. Diagrams. graphs and Distribution Maps based on Statistical Data.
PAPER-II (Marks- 100)
HUMAN ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
1. Human Geography
Man and his Habitat : Concepts of Environmentalism and Possibilism. World Population-distribution, structure and growth (natural increase and migration). World, Society and Culture: races, languages and religions. levels of education and welfare. Settlements-rural and urban. characteristics and problems of urban places. Population/Resource Regions.
2. Economic Geography
Economic Activities : primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary Activity: agricultural systems subsistence, intensive, extensive, mechanized and mixed farming. Production. Distribution and Trade of Major Cereal and Non-Cereal Crops. Forests and Fisheries. Power Resources. Major Industries iron and steel, textiles and chemical industries. Politico-economic Relationship between the More Developed and Less Developed countries.
3. Regional Geography
Economic and Social Roegions of the world. Regional Geography of South Asia with special reference to Pakistan under the following heads: Resource base (Human Physical and Economic) Transport. Trade and International Relations.
PAPER – I (Marks 100)
1. Atomic structure: Quantum theory, Schrodinger equation, Particle in box, hydrogen atom. Hydrogen moleculcion, hydrogemi mole cule. Theories of hydrogen and metallic bonding.
2. Electrochemistry: Ionic equilibria, theory of strong electrolytes; ebye-Huckel theory of activity coefficients, galvanic cells. memberane equilibria and fuel cells. Theories of Acids and Bases, glass electrode. incasuremnent of pH. Electroloysis. overvoltage and corrosion
3. Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics, internal energy, cnthalphy functions, Thermochemistry, Entropy and second law of Thermodynamics, Free energy and chemical equilibrium
4. Chemistry of Following Elements: Oxygen, Carbon, Chlorine, Silicon, Nitrogen. Phosphorus.
5. Metallurgy of the Following Elements: Copper, Aluminium, Iron and Silver.
6. Inorganic Chemical Industries: Sulphuric Acid, Fixation of Nitrogen, Chemical Fertilizers, Semi-conductivity devices, Cement, Glass and Ceramics.
7. Chemistry of Transition Elements: General characteristics of the group based on the electronic configum-amion of the elements, Complex com pounds. Nature of Coordinate Bond, Historical development, Applications of Valence Bond, Molecular Orbital and Crystal Field Theories to explain the structures of the Complex Compounds.
8. Pollution: Water, air.
PAPER-lI (Marks – 100)
1. Theory of chemical Bonding: Elements of Valence bond and molecular orbital theories (idea of bonding, non-bonding and anti-bonding orbitals) Sigma and Pi bonds. Hybridization. Shape of molecules.
2. Chemica! Kinetics: Rate law and its determination Order of reaction. Experimental methods. Temperature Dependence of rate con stants. Study of mechanism of a few selected reactions (1st and 2nd under reaction only).
3. Surface Chemistry and Catalysis: Physical adsorption and chemisorption. Surface area determination. Homogeneous and Hetrogeneous Catalysis. Acid-base and Enzyme Catalysis.
4. Physical Organic Chemistry: Elements of Organic reaction mechanism Optical and Geometric Isomarism Conformational analysis, Resonance, H Bond and its effects on the properties of Organic Compounds.
5. Organic Halogen Compounds: Types and Synthetic application, Grignard Reagents.
6. Chemistry of Carbonyl Compounds: Types of Carnobyl nv Comnpounds. Preparation and reactions of Aldehydes and ketones
7. Aromatic Chemistry: Structure of Benzene with particular refer ence to Mechanism of Electrophilic Substitution Reactions.
8. Organic Nitrogen Compounds: Diazonium Salts amid their synthetic applications, Preparation and reactions of Aromatic Amino Compounds, Introduction to the Study of Dyes with particular reference to Azodyes.
9. Chemistry of Natural Products: Elementary study of Carbohydrates, Oils and Fats, Alkaloids and Vitamins.
10. Industrial Organic Chemistry: Organic Polymers, Fermentation processes including preparation of Anti-Biotics, Petro-Chemical Industry.
BOTANY (Total Marks – 200)
PAPER – I (Marks-100)
1. Phycology: Origin, evolution, distribution and classification with reference to range, structure, life history, ecology and economic importance of the main groups of algae.
2. Mycology & Plant Pathology: Structure, development reproduction, classification; phylogeny, physiology and economic importance of the main groups of fungi, Diseases of economic importance and general principles of their control.
2. Bryology: Evolution of ganietophytes and sporophytcs.
3. Peteridophyta and Gymnosperms: General structure fife history and evolutionary tendencies, Ontogeny and structure of seed.
4. Anatomy and Embryology: Primary and secondary tissues, Meristems, tissue differentiation, normal and abnormal secondary growth, anatomy of leaf, stem and root, Micro and megasporogenesis, pollination mechanism, fertilization, development of embryo and endosperm, seed dispersal.
5. Taxonomy of Angiosperms: Systems of classification, Rules of botanical nomenclature, Concepts of speciarion, Introduction to modern trends in plant taxonomy: Bio-systematics, chemotaxonomy and numerical taxonomy.
PAPER – II (Marks – l00)
1. Plant Physiology: Plant water relations, osmotic quantities, absorptions, transpiration, role of essential mineral elements, their uptake and distribution, growth and development, plant hormones, photoperiodism, vernalization, Dormancy and seed germination, Biochemistry of carbohydrates, proteins and fats with reference to plants, Enzymes, Plant pigments, Photophosphorelation, path of carbon in photosynthesis, oxidative phosophorelation (respiration), nitrogen and fat metabolism.
2. Ecology: Influence of climatic. edaphic and biotic factors on plant growth, Sampling techniques, Major formations in relation to climatic zones, Concepts of ecosystems and their productivity, Ecological energetics, efficiency, pyramids, food chains and trophic levels. Salinity and water logging in Pakistan, causes. reclamation, soil erosion, methods of control and conservation. Pollution and conservation of natural resources.
3. Cytology: Detailed study of ultrastructure of cell. Mitosis and meiosos. Significance of meiosis.
o Mendalian Genetics, Linkage, crossing over, sex linked genes, lethals, balanced lethals. Mutation, polyploidy.
o Biochemical Genetics: Bichemical nature of hereditary material, genetic Code, Fine Structure of gene, transduction and transformation.
5. Evolution Theories of evolution, Neo-Darwinism Neo Lamarckism. Adaptive mutations.
Zoology (Total Marks – 200)
PAPER – I (Marks 100)
INVERTEBRATE AND CHORDATE ZOOLOGY
The candidates will be required to attempt five questions-three from Part – A and two from Part – B.
PART – A
General organization (general morphology, mode of life adaptations life cycles and economic importance) of the following groups with special reference to the topics mentioned in each group
• Protozoa: Parasitism, conjugation and autogamy, medical importance.
• Porifera: Canal system, skeletal structures and their taxonomic value, position of porifera in the Animal Kingdom.
• Coelenterata: Polymorphism; measenteries corals and coral reefs.
• Platyhelminthes: Parastic adaptations, medical importance
• Nematoda: Medical importance.
• Anneilda: Coelom, metamerism,
• Mollusca: Shell, modifications of foot, feeding, respiration, shell fishery,
• Arthropoda: Appendages, feeding: respiration, larvae.
• Echinodermata: Skeleton, water vascular system, larvae.
PART – B
Origin; comparative account of skeleton, circulatory, excretory and nervous systems, development (egg types, cleavage, blastula and gastrula, germ layer/formation, embryonic membranes and placentation) natural history (mode of life, migration, adaptations, biting mechanism of snakes)
PAPER – II (Marks 100)
The candidates will be required to attempt at least one question from each part.
Part – A
Cell Biology: Morphology. Chemical composition and functions of nucleus, nuclear inclusions and cytoplasmic organelles, protein synthesis and molecular genetics. mechanism of mitosis and meiosis.
Part – B
General Physiology: Respiration, respiratory mechanism, respiratory pigments, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, circulation : haemodynamics, control of cardiovascular system, nutrition: modes of nutrition, digestion and assimilation of food stuff, Excretion: nature and sources of substances excreted, modes of excretions, Nervous system, nerve impulses, Hormones and their biological action
.Part – C
Genetics: Mendelian principles, multiple alleles, interaction of genes: linkage and crossing over, mapping of genes, sex determination and sex linkage, mutations, chromosoinal aberrations, gene concept.
Part – D
Evolution: Origin of life, organic diversity, theories to account for organic diversity, Phylogeny and ontogeny, species concept, mechanism of evolution, modem concept of natural selection, evolutionary trends.
Part – E
Ecology : Concept of ecosystem, biogeochemical cycles, animal adaptations to major habitats, environmental pollution and its effect on life.